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Tracing the history of the ideals of justice, equality, liberty, democracy, laws and rights, this module will give you an insight of the thinking of political legal philosophers who had initially defined the concept of human rights as political one. However, with continuous struggle of the people through out the ages to assert their personal /individual autonomy took them to liberate them selves from the clutches of authoritarian rules and paved for instituting democracies where their consent has become the sole basis for any ‘legitimate’ rule.

Group rights are rights enjoyed by people as a group. These rights can be enjoyed by all members as a group or only by some individuals who belong to a certain group.  As such group rights are not necessarily collective rights, which are exercised by a group of people collectively. Accordingly group rights also can be claimed by individuals.

Examples for such groups are children, women, men, indigenous people, youth, workers, religious groups, displaces persons etc. These are very broad groups, and there can be variations within these groups.

There are several reasons to recognize certain rights as group rights. One reason is it gives more recognition and force to a right when it is claimed as a group right. On the other hand it has become necessary to claim rights as group rights because of the social or political oppression on certain rights exercised by identifiable groups.

Over the years, the Human Rights concept has progressed into other areas where there is a clear inter-relationship between Human Rights and other aspects such as Globalization, Information Technology (IT), Democracy, Terrorism and National Security, Religious and Cultural Fundamentalism. Further, it is evident through these concepts, that societies face New Challenges in protecting Human Rights, which are discussed in this Module.